©2018 Mahoning Valley Water Inc.  RESIDENTIAL WATER WELLS      A home without water is virtually unlivable.  The cost of a well is relatively small in comparison to the home itself, but without a water supply, the home value depreciates greatly.  This brochure discusses some important facts regarding wells and what to do and when to do it. Drill Before You Build      Dry holes or low-yielding wells are not uncommon in certain regions of Ohio.  Too many homes have inadequate water supplies because the property owner did not have a well drilled before the home was built.  The recommended procedure is to have the well drilled before the home is built.  In areas of marginal or questionable ground water supply, the prospective buyer may wish to obtain an option on the property with permission to have a well drilled first. Estimate Water Needs      Each home needs water for everyday use, including seasonal use such as lawn watering.  On average, a home needs a well that can produce at least 7 gallons per minute (gpm) to meet the demand during peak water use times of the day.  Each person uses an average of 75 gallons of water per day. Determine Water Availability      The geologic conditions, or type of material beneath the ground surface will dictate how much water can be obtained from a drilled well.  The Ground Water Resources section of the Ohio Dept of Natural Resources can give you general information of your area by reviewing existing well records and ground studies on file regarding the type of water bearing formation, expected well yield, static water level, and depth to bedrock.  Also, local drilling contractors, drawing on their experience in your area, may be able to give you the same information as well as the quality and quantity of water that can be expected. Selecting A Well Drilling Contractor      Ohio has over 500 drilling contractors in business today.  As a rule, it is a good idea to obtain quotes and information from several contractors for comparison.  Some of the questions you should ask are: What is the contractor's reputation? Is the contractor registered and bonded through the Ohio Dept of Health?  To determine if they are registered, call your local health department, or contact the Ohio Dept of Health at 614-466-0148. Does the contractor have adequate equipment in good condition to do the job right? Does the contractor have adequate liability insurance to protect? Will the contractor furnish you with a written contract specifying the terms and conditions of the job? The Contract      To protect yourself as a buyer against and dissatisfaction or legal action that may follow, you should have a written contract.  The contract should include: Size of the hole of the proposed well. Size and type of casing. Type of grout to be used to properly seal the casing. Specifications of the well screen if the well is anticipated to be completed in sand and gravel. The amount of time the well will be test pumped on completion. Date the contractor will furnish a well log and drilling report. Guarantees and warranties on materials and workmanship. An itemized listing of the charges.           Don't expect the contractor to work for nothing if the well does not fulfill expectations.  The driller must work with natural geologic conditions as they exist.  His job is to get sufficient quantity of water not quality. Well Construction Materials      Proper well construction materials and techniques are essential to providing both a long term and safe supply of ground water for home use. Types of Casing      Steel or thermoplastic or PVC casing are the standard choices for wells drilled on Ohio.  Each has its advantages and disadvantages as shown below.                                                    PVC CASING                                             Advantages                                        Disadvantages Corrosion resistance                           Lower relative strength         Light weight                                   Lower heat resistance       Ease of installation                      Lower compressive strength Resistant to acid clean-outs            Flexible (must be centered in                                                                 the bore hole)                                                     STEEL CASING Advantages                                       Disadvantages         High relative strength                      Higher corrosion potential        Higher heat resistance                             Heavier in weight    Higher compressive strength                   Relatively higher cost                 Rigid pipe                                           Scale build-up      The inside diameter of the casing should be 5 - 6 inches or preferably two sizes larger than the bowl size of the pump to be installed.  Doubling the casing size will not double the wells' yield, but it will increase the water storage by approximately 400%.  Therefore, in areas of relatively low yielding wells, a larger casing can act as a reservoir. Casing Length      The law requires a minimum of 25 feet of casing to be installed in the new well.  When properly grouted, the casing seals out potential contaminants from entering your well.  Generally speaking, casing should be installed completely through any unconsolidated materials such as clay, sand or gravel.  When drilling in bedrock, casing is installed through any unconsolidated material and set at least a few feet into the rock.  The well casing should extend at least 8 inches above the ground level, or 3 feet above the flood level if located near a stream or river, to prevent surface water from entering the well and contaminating the aquifer. Pitless Adapter      Pitless adapters provide a frost-proof and sanitary seal between the well casing and the water line running to your home.  A hole is cut into the casing below the frost line and the discharge line is installed into the adapter using a sanitary seal such as a gasket or by welding.  A drop line connects to the adapter inside of the casing which in turn connects to the pump. Well Screens      A well screen is a filtering device that attaches to the bottom length of casing and allows water to move into the well while keeping the majority of sand and gravel out of the well.  The most common types of screens used in residential wells are continuous slot, slotted pipe, and perforated pipe.            The proper screen slot size is determined by examining the well cuttings while drilling through the water bearing zone.  Select a size that holds back the sand, yet allows water to freely enter the well.  If the slot size chosen is too large, sand as well as water will pass through the screen creating excess wear on the pump.  A slot size too small will hold back the sand but will also restrict the movement of water into the well lessening efficiency and increasing stress on the pump. MAHONING VALLEY WATER